As a rule of thumb, these are the three basic elements, but this will vary with the type of source:
If you are quoting from a magazine, newspaper or journal article, give a quick statement of the author (if relevant) as well as the (full) date and title of the source. This applies to both print sources and those found in the Library Databases.
You do not need to give the title of the article, although you may if it helps in any way. For example, if you are quoting one or more articles from the same newspaper, this would help differentiate the sources.
You do not need to give the page number nor the name of electronic database that cataloged the periodical/publication.
If you are citing information from a book, provide the title of the book, year of publication and a brief mention of the author's credentials. You don’t have to mention the page, publisher or city of publication:
If you are citing a website you need to establish the credibility, currency and objectivity (fact vs. opinion) of the site.
Tip: If you cannot find this information on a web site, you may want to consider finding a different source.
In an oral citation of a website, you do not need to give the URL.
If you are quoting the source of an interview, give the person's name and statement of their credentials, date of interview, as well as the fact that the information was obtained from a personal interview:
Caution: Interviews are not the same as conversations or undocumented recollections of class lectures; interview sources must be credentialed “experts” in their fields.
Without practice, oral citations can be challenging to incorporate into a speeches.Verbally presenting source references interrupts the flow of thoughts and speakers often are concentrating more on content, rather than worrying about where they sourced the information. Accordingly, incorporate oral source citations into each of your speech rehearsals. Citations become part of the overall timing of the speech, so use a watch or timer when practicing.
Do not say "quote, unquote" when you cite a direct quotation. Pause briefly instead.