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Evaluating Sources: Information Disorder

Understanding Information Disorder

As Claire Wordle and Hossein Derakshan write in the UNESCO handbook Journalism, ‘Fake News’ & Disinformation, there exists a spectrum of incorrect information. While the term "fake news" has been used to describe this concept, the politicization of the phrase has diminished its usefulness in helping us evaluate information. Instead, the term "information disorder" helps us categorize and better understand the various formats of false information and its intended impact on its audience.

Journalists, librarians, and academics identify the types of information disorder:

  • Misinformation: Information that is false but not created with the intention of causing harm
  • Disinformation: Information that is false and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organization or country
  • Malinformation: Information that is based on reality, used to inflict harm on a person, social group, organization or country.

Types of Information Disorder Venn Diagram

Image Credit: 3 Types of Information Disorder by Claire Wardle & Hossein Derakshan, 2017, is available under a CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 license

Forms of Information Disorder

Not all false information is harmful or "bad."  The spectrum of information disorder includes satire, parody, and even click-bait headlines and memes.

The misinformation tracking organization First Draft identifies seven common forms of information disorder and places them on a spectrum representing harm to the public:

  1. Satire or parody (example: Onion article, "Wealthy Teen Nearly Experiences Consequence")
  2. False connection (example: clickbait headlines)
  3. MIsleading content (example: selective use of statistics)
  4. False content (example: "California bans Hunt's Manwich sauce")
  5. Imposter content (example: imposter site)
  6. Manipulated content (example: deepfakes)
  7. Fabricated content (example: ads encouraging voting byy SMS)



Seven Common Forms of Information Disorder

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  • Last Updated: Oct 3, 2022 2:42 PM
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